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Analyse des Crises d'Epilepsie à l'Aide de Mesures de Profondeur


Directeur de thèse :     Christian JUTTEN     Christian JUTTEN

Co-encadrant :     Ronald PHLYPO

École doctorale : Electronique, electrotechnique, automatique, traitement du signal (EEATS)

Spécialité : Signal, image, parole, télécoms

Structure de rattachement : Université Grenoble Alpes

Établissement d'origine : UNIV. TEHERAN

Financement(s) : Erc ; Bourse attribuée par un organisme ; Bourse attribuée par un organisme ; Sans financement


Date d'entrée en thèse : 01/08/2015

Date de soutenance : 27/11/2019


Composition du jury :
Mohammad Bagher SHAMSOLLAHI, Professeur, University of Technologie, Iran, Examinateur
Massoud BABAIE-ZADEH, professeur,University of Technologie, Iran, Examinateur
Carole LARTIZIEN, Directrice de Recherche, CNRS Rhône Auvergne, Examinateur
Gholam-ali HOSSEIN-ZADEH, Professeur, Université de Téhéran, Iran, Examinteur
François CABESTAING, Professeur des Université, Université de Lille, Rapporteur
Seyed Kamal SERAREHDAN, Professeur, Université de Téhéran, Iran, Rapporteur
Christian JUTTEN, Professeur des Universités, Université Grenoble Alpes, Directeur de thèse
Hamid SOLTANIAN-ZADEH, Professeur, Université de Téhéran, Iran, Co-Directeur de thèse.


Résumé : Absence epilepsy syndrome is accompanied with sudden appearance of seizures in dierent regions of the brain. The sudden generalization of absence seizures to every region of the brain shows the existence of a mechanism which can quickly synchronizes the activities of the majority of neurons in the brain. The presence of such a mechanism challenges our information about the integrative properties of neurons and the functional connectivity of brain networks. For this reason, many researchers have tried to recognize the main origin of absence seizures. Recent studies have suggested a theory regarding the origin of absence seizures which states that somatosensory cortex drives the thalamus during the rst cycles of absence seizures, while thereafter, cortex and thalamus mutually drive each other and continue absence seizures. This theory motivated the neuroscientists in Grenoble Institute of Neurosciences (GIN) to record data from dierent layers of somatosensory cortex of Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS), which is a well-validate animal model for absence epilepsy, to explore the main starting region of absence seizures locally. An electrode with E = 16 sensors was vertically implanted in somatosensory cortex of GAERS, and potentials were recorded. In this study, we aim to localize the onset layers of somatosensory cortex during absence seizures and investigate the temporal evolution and dynamics of absence seizures using the recorded data. It is worth mentioning that all previous studies have investigated absence seizures using the data recorded from dierent regions of the brain, while this is the rst study that performs the local exploration of absence seizures using the data recorded from dierent layers of somatosensory cortex, i.e., the main starting region of absence seizures. Using factor analysis, source separation, and blind deconvolution methods in dierent scenarios, we show that 1) the top and bottom layers of somatosensory cortex activate more than the other layers during absence seizures, 2) there is a background epileptic activity during absence seizures, 3) there are few activities or states which randomly activate with the background epileptic activity to generate the absence seizures, and 4) one of these states is dominant, and the others are unstable. Keywords Absence Seizure, Spatio-Temporal Analysis, Spike and Wave Discharges, State, Markovian Model, Epileptic Activity, Factor Analysis, Static and Dynamic Sources, Source Separation, Blind Deconvolution

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